A Coggle Diagram about periodic table of elements
, electrons protons and neutrons
, Atoms are the basic building blocks of ordinary matter. Atoms can join together to form molecules, which in turn form most of the objects around you.
, atomic radius The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
and atomic mass is the total number of protons and neutrons in a substance
, In the periodic table, you can see a stair-stepped line starting at Boron (B), atomic number 5, and going all the way down to Polonium (Po), atomic number 84. Except for Germanium (Ge) and Antimony (Sb), all the elements to the left of that line can be classified as metals.
, These metals have properties that you normally associate with the metals you encounter in everyday life:They are solid (with the exception of mercury, Hg, a liquid).They are shiny, good conductors of electricity and heat.They are ductile (they can be drawn into thin wires).They are malleable (they can be easily hammered into very thin sheets).All these metals tend to lose electrons easily. The following figure shows the metals.
and reactivity the quality of being reactive or the degree to which something is reactive
), noble gases
( were previously referred to as the "inert gases" due to the fact that their filled valence shells (octets) make them extremely nonreactive. The noble gases were characterized relatively late compared to other element groups.
, The six noble gases are found in group 18 of the periodic table.Helium
(The elements that border the stair-stepped line are classified as metalloids. The metalloids, or semimetals, have properties that are somewhat of a cross between metals and nonmetals.Metalloids tend to be economically important because of their unique conductivity properties (they only partially conduct electricity), which make them valuable in the semiconductor and computer chip industry. The metalloids are shown in the following illustration.
, Metalloids are the elements found along the stair-step line that distinguishes metals from non-metals. This line is drawn from between Boron and Aluminum to the border between Polonium and Astatine.
), sodium is a metal
, is a chemical element with symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal
), Atomic Structure
and Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the center of the atom, which is called the nucleus.
), non -metals
and Except for the elements that border the stair-stepped line, the elements to the right of the line are classified as nonmetals (along with hydrogen). Nonmetals have properties opposite those of the metals.The nonmetals are brittle, not malleable or ductile, poor conductors of both heat and electricity, and tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions. Some nonmetals are liquids. These elements are shown in the following figure.
) and alkine metals
(any of the elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and francium, occupying Group IA (1) of the periodic table. They are very reactive, electropositive, monovalent metals forming strongly alkaline hydroxides.