4.1 Normative discourses in social policy
A Coggle Diagram about Welfare reformsDwyer & Wright, 2014: 30
"The tone of reforms has also been shaped by powerful stigmatising anti-welfare rhetoric and a well-established and ongoing priority of cost-cutting (Wright, 2012; Hoggett et al, 2013).""
, Social citizenship
, Migrants/immigrationShutes, 2015: 263
"International migration is a manifestation of global structures of social advantage and disadvantage. Who migrates, from where, to where, why, how, and to what effect are linked to the inequalities of class, gender, race, and ethnicity that have traditionally underpinned the analysis of advantage and disadvantage in society. However, international migration also highlights the significance of inequalities between the so- called global north and south, within regions, such as Europe, and the salience of citizenship in structuring advantage/ disadvantage."Shutes 2015 267 "The use of the terms ‘migrant’ and ‘citizen’ in political debate and the media is highly normative, underpinned by divisions of class, gender, race, ethnicity, and religion, which interconnect in distinguishing who is the wanted and unwanted migrant, the included and excluded citizen."Corrigan 2009: 418
Re; assumptions about migrants' access to social security benefits and welfare provision "moral hazard assumptions have been very much in evidence both at the level of governmental policy-makers and in public and political discourse more broadly."
- but Corrigan's results do not support this assumption (see 430) "Complete dependency on welfare cannot, on these results, be ascribed to differences in migrant intentions and behaviour arising from the incentive structures presented by relatively more or less generous welfare systems."
and Marshallian social citizenshipDwyer 2004: 267
"Built around three rights elements (i.e. civil, political and social) Marshall’s theory (1950/1992) of citizenship implied an equality of status universally enjoyed by all deemed to be citizens. It was the addition of a third social rights element which promised,
the whole range from the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security, to the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live civilised life according to the standards prevailing in society (Marshall, 1992: 8), that made the citizenship status of the social democratic post war welfare settlement (PWWS) both distinctive and substantive when compared to that which had gone before. Although Marshall saw citizenship as a status that entailed both rights and duties it is clear that a general concern with social rights, rather than responsibilities characterised his approach. Many (e.g. Etzioni, 2000, 1997; Mead, 1997; Giddens, 1994) have subsequently criticised his account for placing the idea of unconditional entitlement to welfare at the centre of his account. Marshall’s view that rights to welfare should be both universal and unconditional was shared by Titmuss, Tawney and others, who were also concerned to ensure that public welfare would lessen inequalities and foster a sense of social solidarity between citizens (Deacon, 2002a;"
), Poverty & inequalityFerrugia & Gerrard 2015: 2 "the act of naming, identifying, describing, counting and measur- ing the disadvantaged, poor or marginalised ‘other’ reveals much about normative under- standings and assumptions"Dean 2015, Ch1 pp3-4
"Poverty is therefore a socially constructed concept that has been perennially discovered and rediscovered as a form of disadvantage concerned not only with material deprivations, but with symbolic meanings and moral implications"
, 'Neoliberalism'Wiggan 2012: 385
"the hallmarks of neo-liberalism – a smaller state and the market reorganization of public services"Wright 2012: 310
"a consensus has developed on the desirability of a particular form of governance that mixes contractualism, managerialism and marketisation."Dean 2007
"Advanced liberalism is critical of monolithic government on the one hand and the proliferation of welfare rights on the other. "
and Equality and human rights